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Indonesian (Indonesian: Bahasa Indonesia) is the official language and lingua franca of Indonesia, and also widely spoken in East Timor. With over 230 million speakers, there are a lot of people to talk to in Indonesian.
Indonesian is closely related to Bahasa Malaysia, but the main difference is the vocabulary: Indonesian has been influenced by Dutch, while Bahasa Malaysia has been influenced by English. Both have been influenced by Sanskrit, Arabic and Javanese.
The basic word order of Indonesian is similar to English:subject-verb-object with one basic difference being that the noun or subject comes before the predicate or adjective. For example, Kucing hitam = Black cat; Buku saya = My book. In general, there are no plurals, grammatical gender, or verb conjugation for person, number or tense, all of which are expressed with adverbs or tense indicators: saya makan, "I eat" (now), saya sudah makan, "I already eat" = "I ate".
When plurals are in use, they're often simply a repetition of the singular form, connected by a dash (or, in shortened informal Indonesian, indicated with a "2" at the end). For example, "mobil-mobil" (cars) is simply the plural form of "mobil" (car). One can also choose to use other words, especially in informal situations, such as "banyak" (many) instead: "banyak mobil". The use of singular form doesn't guarantee a single object; the phrase "Ada mobil di depan" (There is; car; in; front) may mean 1 or more cars. Some words don't exhibit plural forms; to be safe, simply use the singular form. The repetitive plural form is most often found in writing.
A characteristic of Indonesian is that it is a so-called agglutinative language, which means that affixes are all attached to a word stem. So a word can become very long. For example there is a base word hasil which means "result" or "success". But it can be extended as far as ketidakberhasilannya, which means his/her failure: "ke"(the state of)-"tidak"(not)-"ber"(-ing)-"hasil"(success)-"an"(the state of, with ke)-"nya"(his/her). These are largely modular; "berhasil" means "to succeed", for example.
If all else fails, simply using standard subject-verb-object form and common particles, while disregarding prefixes and suffixes, is generally unambiguous. For example, to state your intention to find a train station, simply "saya mau pergi ke stasiun" (I; want to; go; to; the station) is both clear and polite.
One legacy of the Sukarno-Suharto era still affecting Indonesia is an inordinate fondness for vaguely Orwellian Newspeak-y abbreviations, chosen more for pronouncability than logic or comprehensibility. For example, the National Monument (Monumen Nasional) is universally known as Monas, the Jakarta-Bogor-Tangerang-Bekasi capital region is called Jabotabek and a police captain at the East Kalimantan HQ (Kepala Kepolisian Resor Kalimantan Timur) would be known as Kapolres Kaltim. Even the socialistic exhortation to stand on your own feet (berdiri diatas kaki sendiri) can be snappily rendered as berdikari and the humble fried rice nasi goreng can be chopped up into nasgor!
Indonesian is very easy to pronounce: it has one of the most phonetic writing systems in the world, with only a small number of simple consonants and relatively few vowel sounds. One peculiarity of the spelling is the lack of a separate sign to denote the schwa. It is written as an 'e', which can sometimes be confusing.
In Indonesia, spelling reforms in 1947 and 1972 have officially eliminated several vestiges of Dutch in the otherwise very phonetic spelling, and the writing system is now nearly identical to Bahasa Malaysia. However, the older forms remain in use to some extent (especially in names) and have been noted in parenthesis below.
Stress usually falls on the second-to-last syllable, so in two-syllable words the first syllable is stressed.
Vowelsa like 'a' in "father" (never like "cat") e one (and by far the more common) is the schwa sound, as in 'e' in "stern", "learn","vowel" e second one is like the 'e' in "bed", "red". e and third is like in 'a' in "foray" and "came" i (ie, j) like 'i' in "thin" or 'i' in "antique" o like 'ow' in "low", in open positions or like 'o' in "top" in close positions u (oe) like 'oo' in "hoop", in open positions or like 'o' in “hope” in close positions
Having trouble finding a word in a dictionary? Trying dropping the extra cruft.
Prefixes: be-, bel-, ber-, di-, ke-, me-, mem-, men-, meng-, per-, se-, ter-
Postfixes: -an, -i, -kan, -lah, -nya
Common diphthongsai like 'aye' in "eye" or "why" au like 'ow' in "cow" oi like 'oy' in "boy"
Unless noted as (informal), phrases in this phrasebook use the formal, polite Anda and saya forms for "you" and "I" respectively.
The shorter the better
Colloquial Indonesian shortens commonly used words mercilessly.
-ku and -mu also act as suffixes: mobilku is short for mobil aku, "my car". Note that shortened words are often less formal, and there for clarity, the standard form may be preferred.
Referring to others politely
Terms for "you" are considered impolite in Indonesia. To call anyone "kamu" is in itself often condescending; opt for the honorific instead.
It is also safe to call people by their name (with honorifics) or their title, such as "Pak Guru" (a male teacher). In some areas, local terms are in use, such as "Abang" for older males in the Jakarta region. Using the standard Indonesian phrases are also fine in these situations.
No means no
Indonesian has a number of ways to say "no".
Ada apel? (Do you) have an apple?
Tidak ada. (No, I) don't have.
Apel baik? (Is it a) good apple?
Tidak baik. (No, it's) not good. bukan (kan) "No" — used to negate nouns.
Ini apel? Is this an apple?
Bukan. Ini jeruk. No, it's not. It's an orange. belum "Not yet" — used when something has not happened (yet).
Sudah makan apel? (Did you) already eat the apple?
Belum. No, not yet. jangan "Don't" — to tell somebody not to do something.
Jangan makan apel! Don't eat the apple! dilarang "Forbidden" — used mostly on signs.
Dilarang makan apel. Eating apples is forbidden.
Numbers0 nol / kosong (COSS-song) 1 satu (...) 2 dua (...) 3 tiga (...) 4 empat (OM-phat) 5 lima (LEE-ma) 6 enam (O-nam or NAM) 7 tujuh (...) 8 delapan (D´LAPAN) 9 sembilan (...) 10 sepuluh (...) 11 sebelas (SE-b´las) 12 dua belas (DUA-b´las) 13 tiga belas (TIGA-b´las) 14 empat belas (OMPHAT-b´las) 20 dua puluh (...) 21 dua puluh satu (...) 22 dua puluh dua (...) 23 dua puluh tiga (...) 30 tiga puluh (...) 40 empat puluh (...) 50 lima puluh (...) 100 seratus (S´RA-tus) 200 dua ratus (...) 300 tiga ratus (...) 1000 seribu (S´RI-bu) 1100 seribu seratus (S´RIBU-s´ratus) 1152 seribu seratus lima puluh dua (...) 1200 seribu dua ratus (...) 1500 seribu lima ratus (...) 2000 dua ribu (...) 2100 dua ribu seratus (...) 10,000 sepuluh ribu (...) 20,000 dua puluh ribu (...) 100,000 seratus ribu (...) 150,000 seratus lima puluh ribu (...) 156,125 seratus lima puluh enam ribu seratus dua puluh lima (...) 250,000 dua ratus lima puluh ribu / seperempat juta (quarter of a million) (...) 500,000 lima ratus ribu / setengah juta (half a million) (...) 1,000,000 satu juta (...) 1,150,000 satu juta seratus lima puluh ribu (...) 1,250,000 satu seperempat juta (...) 1,500,000 satu setengah juta (...) 1,750,000 satu juta tujuh ratus lima puluh ribu (...) 1,000,000,000 satu milyar 1,000,000,000,000 satu trilyun number _____ (train, bus, etc.) nomor _____ (NO-more) half setengah (...) quarter seperempat (...) three quarter tiga perempat (...) less kurang (KU-rang) more lebih (LEB-ih)
Timenow sekarang (...) later nanti (NUN-tee) before sebelum (se-BEL-um) morning pagi (0.00 – 10.30) (PA-gi) afternoon siang (10.30 – 15.00) (see-YOUNG) evening sore (15.00 – 19.00) (sore-RAY) night malam (19.00 – 0.00) (...)
The following terms are borrowed from Arabic, and relate to Muslim prayer times.dawn subuh (4.00 – 6.00) dusk maghrib (17.00 – 19.00) Clock time one o'clock AM jam satu pagi (...) two o'clock AM jam dua pagi (...) noon tengah hari (...) one o'clock PM jam satu siang (...) two o'clock PM jam dua siang (...) midnight tengah malam (...) Duration _____ minute(s) _____ menit (...) _____ hour(s) _____ jam (...) _____ day(s) _____ hari (...) _____ week(s) _____ minggu (...) _____ month(s) _____ bulan (BOO-lun) _____ year(s) _____ tahun (...) Days today hari ini (HAH-ree EE-nee) yesterday kemarin (ke-MAHR-reen) tomorrow besok (beh-SOAK) this week minggu ini (MEENG-goo EE-nee) last week minggu lalu (MEENG-goo LAH-loo) next week minggu depan (MEENG-goo dah-PAHN) Sunday Minggu (MEENG-goo) Monday Senin (se-NEEN) Tuesday Selasa (S'LAH-sah) Wednesday Rabu (RAH-boo) Thursday Kamis (KAH-mees) Friday Jum’at (joom/-AHT) Saturday Sabtu (SAHB-too) Months January Januari (...) February Februari (...) March Maret (MAR-ruht) April April (...) May Mei (...) June Juni (JOON-nee) July Juli (JOOL-lee) August Agustus (a-GOOS-tuhs) September September (...) October Oktober (...) November Nopember (...) December Desember (day-SEM-burr) Writing time and date Writing time 1.00 pukul / jam satu 1.01 jam satu lewat / lebih satu 1.15 jam satu seperempat 1.20 jam satu lewat duapuluh / jam setengah dua kurang sepuluh 1.30 jam setengah dua 1.40 jam setengah dua lebih sebuluh / jam satu lewat empat puluh 1.45 jam dua kurang seperempat The hours are written from zero to 23. So 06.00 PM is written as 18.00. Date
First one should write the day, after that the month and then the year.August 17th 1945 17 Agustus 1945
Colorsblack hitam (HEE-tahm) white putih (POO-teeh) gray abu-abu (AH-boo AH-boo) red merah (MEH-rah) blue biru (BEE-roo) yellow kuning (KOO-ning) green hijau (HEE-jow) orange jingga/oranye (oh-RAHN-nyah) purple ungu (OONG-oo) brown coklat (choh-KLAHT) (also the word for chocolate)
TransportationBus and train How much is a ticket to _____? Berapa harga karcis ke _____? (Brr-AH-pah hahr-GEES kahr-CHEES kuh _____?) One ticket to _____, please. Tolong, satu karcis ke _____. (Toh-LONG, SAH-too kahr-CHEES kuh _____) Where does this train/bus go? Kereta/bus ini ke mana? (Kuh-REH-tah / Boos EE-nee kuh MAH-nah?) Where is the train/bus to _____? Di mana kereta/bus ke _____? (Dee MAH-nah kuh-REH-tah / boos kuh _____?) Does this train/bus stop in _____? Apa kereta/bus ini berhenti di _____? (AH-pah kuh-REH-tah / boos EE_nee brr-HEN-tee dee _____?) What time does the train/bus for _____ leave? Jam berapa kereta/bus ke _____ berangkat? (Jahm brr-AH-pah kuh-REH-tah / boos kuh _____ brr-AHNG-kaht?) What time does this train/bus arrive in _____? Jam berapa kereta/bus ini sampai di _____? (Jahm brr-AH-pah kuh-REH-tah / boos EE-nee sahm-PAHY dee _____?) Directions How do I get to _____ ? Bagaimana saya bisa ke _____ ? (...) ...the train station? ...stasiun kereta api? (...) ...the bus station? ...terminal bus? (...) ...the airport? ...bandara? (...) ...downtown? ...pusat kota? (...) ...the _____ hotel? ... hotel _____ ? (...) ...the American/Canadian/Australian/British embassy/consulate? ... Kedutaan Besar/Konsulat Amerika/Kanada/Australia/Inggris ? (...) Where are there a lot of... Di mana ada banyak... (...) ...hotels? ...hotel? (...) ...restaurants? ...rumah makan? (...) ...bars? ...bar? (...) ...sites to see? ...tempat-tempat bagus? (...) Can you show me on the map? Bisa anda tunjukkan di peta? (BEE-SUH un-duh TOON-jook-kunn dee PEY-TUH?) street jalan (...) left kiri (...) right kanan (...) straight ahead lurus (...) towards the _____ menuju _____ (...) past the _____ melewati _____ (...) before the _____ sebelum _____ (...) near the dekat _____ (...) in front of di depan _____ (...) intersection persimpangan (...) north utara (...) south selatan (...) east timur (...) west barat (...) north-east timur laut (...) nort-west barat laut (...) south-east tenggara (tuhng-GAH-rah) south-west barat daya (...) Taxi Taxi! Taksi! (TUKS-see) Take me to _____, please. Bisa pergi ke _____. (...) How much does it cost to get to _____? Berapa harganya ke _____? (...) Take me there, please. Tolong antar saya ke sana. (...) Turn left. Belok kiri. (...) Turn right. Belok kanan. (...) Turn around. (U-turn) Putar balik. (...) Watch for the _____. Lihat _____. (...) Stop here. Berhenti di sini. (...) Wait here. Tunggu di sini. (...)
LodgingDo you have any rooms available? Ada kamar kosong? (UH-duh kum-muhr COS-SONG?) How much is a room for one person/two people? Berapa harganya kamar untuk satu/dua orang? (...) Does the room come with... Apakah ini termasuk... (...) ...bedsheets? ...seprei? (...) ...a bathroom? ...kamar mandi? (...) ...a telephone? ...telepon? (...) ...a TV? ...TV? (tee-FEE) May I see the room first? Bisa lihat kamarnya dulu? (...) Do you have anything quieter? Ada yang lebih tenang? (...) ...bigger? ...besar? (...) ...cleaner? ...bersih? (...) ...cheaper? ...murah? (...) OK, I'll take it. Baik saya mau. (BAYK, sah-yah MaH-oo) I will stay for _____ night(s). Saya tinggal _____ malam. (...) Can you suggest another hotel? Tahu hotel lainnya? (...) Do you have a safe? Anda punya deposit box? (...) ...lockers? ...locker? (...) Is breakfast/supper included? Sudah termasuk sarapan/makan malam? (...) What time is breakfast/supper? Sarapannya/makan malamnya jam berapa? (...) Please clean my room. Tolong kamar saya dibersihkan. (...) Can you wake me at _____? | Saya bisa dibangunkan pada pukul _____? (...) I want to check out. Saya mau check out. (...)
MoneyDo you accept American/Australian/Canadian dollars? Bisa pakai dollar Amerika /Australia / Kanada? (...) Do you accept British pounds? Bisa pakai poundsterling Inggris? (...) Do you accept credit cards? Bisa pakai kartu kredit? (...) Can you change money for me? Apa saya bisa tukar uang? (...) Where can I get money changed? Di mana saya bisa tukar uang? (...) Can you change a traveler's check for me? Anda bisa tukar traveler's check saya? (...) Where can I get a traveler's check changed? Di mana saya bisa tukar traveler's check? (...) What is the exchange rate? Apa kursnya? (...) Where is an automatic teller machine (ATM)? Di mana ada ATM? (dee MUN-nuh UH-duh AH-TEY-EM)