The Sahel is a region of Africa.
Completely land-locked, and well off-the-beaten-path for all but the hardiest of travellers; very unstable in the north
A country with a remarkable history and heritage; home to the ancient trade capitals and seats of learning of Djenné and Timbuktu
Interest for the traveller here is primarily centred on the Saharan dune regions
Similar in nature to neighbouring Mali and perhaps the most popular Sahelian country with travellers
One of the largest countries in Africa and home to the world's oldest continuous major civilisations; sadly very prone to conflict in recent years
There is a very low population in this area of Africa, and cities are rare and far between but here are the main ones.
- Agadez — historically a very important stage on the trans-Saharan caravan routes in northern Niger
- Bamako — capital of Mali
- Khartoum — capital of Sudan and by far the largest city in the region
- Mopti — one of the main ports in Mali and a good gateway for many impressive attractions such as Djenné, Timbuktu, and Dogon Country.
- N'Djamena — capital of Chad
- Niamey — capital of Niger and perhaps the most accessible Sahelian city for the traveler
- Nouakchott — capital of Mauritania
- Port Sudan — large Red Sea port city
- Timbuktu — a city of great historical importance particularly for education and the spread of Islam.
- Balleyara Market — Two hours from Niamey in Niger, one of West Africa's largest animal markets, plus a colorful array of other traditional market and artisanal goods (Sundays)
- Dogon Country —a trek through this landscape of scattered cliff-side villages in is not to be missed by any Mali visitor
- Djenne — once a religious and commercial center to rival Timbuktu, this small town of multi-storey mud buildings in Mali is quite a sight
- W National Park — a large trans-border National Park, most accessible from Niamey in Niger
The Sahel runs 3,862 km from the Atlantic Ocean coast of Mauritania in the west to the Red Sea coast of Sudan in the east. The ecoregion definition takes in part of other countries but for the purposes of this travel guide, it includes all of Chad, Mali, Mauritania, Niger and Sudan. The region consists of semi-arid grasslands, savannas, steppes, and thorn shrublands lying between the Central African wooded savanna to the south, and the Sahara to the north.
The topography of the Sahel is mainly flat, and the region mostly lies between 200 and 400 meters elevation.
Over the history of Africa the region has been home to some of the most advanced kingdoms benefiting from trade across the desert. Collectively these states are known as the Sahelian kingdoms which were a series of empires, based in the Sahel, which had many similarities. The wealth of the states came from controlling the Trans-Saharan trade routes across the desert. Their power came from having large pack animals like camels and horses that were fast enough to keep a large empire under central control and were also useful in battle. The first large Sahelian kingdoms emerged after 750, and supported several large trading cities in the Niger Bend region, including Timbuktu, Gao, and Djenné.
Annual rainfall varies from around 200 mm in the north of the Sahel to around 600 mm in the south.